New ARMI-MBH Copper CRMs, Leaded Brass, Monel450, SeBiLOY and Magnolia B1.

Our partner ARMI | MBH  has been busy looking through data and certifying new material and are proud to announce the release of 6 new copper based CRMs this month.  (click on the links in the names of each part to see the certificates of analysis.

The new copper based CRMS include a CDA 715, 3 leaded bronze standards, a Sebiloy Envirobrass and a Magnolia 1 lead free bronze.

The three leaded bronze CRMs are new lots for popular MBH parts. MBH-32X LB13 DMBH-32X LB14 H and MBH-32X LB15 F. Each alloy contains varying amounts of Sn, Pb and Cu, plus certified values for thirteen additional elements. These standards would be ideal for use as calibration standards to cover a range of concentrations for XRF, or as type standards for OES

Sn % Pb % Cu%
32X LB13 D 5.98 7.04 85.1
32X LB14 H 5.16 15.04 78.4
32X LB15 F 4.53 20.15 74.5

 

We are releasing two new lead free Copper alloys, MBH-32X SEB7 B and IARM-CuMB1-18.

MBH-32X SEB7 B is a SeBiLOY/Envirobrass. These brasses are so named because they replace the problematic Pb traditionally used in brass bathroom fixtures with a combination of bismuth and selenium to give the brass the machinability traditionally only achievable with Pb in the structure, making this brass more environmentally friendly than leaded brass. Our 32X SEB7 B contains 1.34% Se, 3.27% Bi, and only 0.278% Pb, as well as certified values for 12 other elements.Brass-fitting_Cropped-iStock-1215666073

IARM-CuMB1-18; Magnolia B-1, is a bismuth-tin bronze with 4.51% Bi, 5.58% Sn and only 0.015% Pb. This type of lead free bronze is typically used for washers and bushings needing to comply with stringent EPA reduction of Pb in drinking water restrictions. CRM has certified values for an additional 10 elements, including Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, O, P, S, Sb, Se and Zn.

 

Finally, we are also offering IARM-Cu715-18. This Monel 450/CDA715 alloys has a typical composition for the grade, with 67.4% Cu and 31.0% Ni, and has certified values for 10 additional elements, C, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S, Si, Sn and Ti.

 

For more information on these or any of our other alloys, you can contact us

Written by: Kim Halkiotis – ARMI MBH (www.armi.com)

THE VALUE OF MINERALOGICAL MONITORING FOR MINING AND ORE PROCESSING

Accurate chemical analysis has long been an integral part of any mining operation throughout the whole process. Whether it is about early exploration steps and mine development, ore sorting, blending and beneficiation during the extraction phase, or waste management – chemical analyses are an essential, unavoidable step in the process. Historically, a few methods were utilized by the mining industry. Wet chemistry, even though still regarded as a golden standard, is moving to the backstage, mainly due to the very long feedback loops. Handling of expensive and dangerous acids is another important factor in reducing the footprint of wet chemistry in the analytical methods suite utilized by mining companies.

Today bulk X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses are by far the main technique used in day-to-day operation to closely monitor the chemical composition at the mine, during the beneficiation process and for the quality check of the end product. Another method, gradually gaining popularity is on-line neutron analyses, offering cross-belt chemical analyses of an ore with extremely short feedback loops.

Can chemical analyses alone ensure the process efficiency and maximize the recovery rates?

The answer, of course, is NO. Another equally important parameter affecting every step in any ore-to-metal process is mineralogy. Whilst both, chemistry and mineralogy define the ore grade, the recovery rate is directly determined by the mineralogy.

Different minerals have different material properties and therefore require different treatment during ore beneficiation.

Failure to account for the mineralogy of an ore deposit will reduce the recovery rate and can result in tens of millions loss during mine operation.

Let’s take a classical example of copper ore sulfides and oxides. Copper sulfides are best separated via flotation, however, the recovery of the oxidized part of the ore during this process is very poor. Heap leaching, on another hand, does provide a higher recovery rate for the copper oxides.

Another well-known example of “beneficiation strategy determined by mineralogy” is Ni recovery from different modifications of pyrrhotite, known as mpo and hpo pyrrhotite. The latter is known to have lower magnetic susceptibility and be more reactive, does causing issues during magnetic separation and requiring different treatment during flotation. These are just a few out of many industry-specific examples.

A “common challenge” for any mining operation is the presence of soft minerals (such as clays) and/or hard minerals (such as quartz). Soft minerals will cause machinery blockage, reduce flotation efficiency or increase the acid consumption during leaching. Hard minerals will complicate the crashing and milling processes, speed-up mill deterioration. Accurate monitoring of raw material mineralogy before the comminution and ore beneficiation steps allows us to account for these “common challenges” and put effective counteractive measures in place.

Good understanding and control over the mineralogy of a mine operation not only helps to set-up an overall strategy for a run-of-mine post-processing, it also allows to optimize beneficiation steps such as:

  • Selection of the correct reagents for separation
  • Usage of the optimal amount of reagents
  • Definition of the best blending ratio to ensure consistent product quality
  • Determination of mineralogical domains to efficiently mine the ore body.

How mineralogy can be accessed?

Ore mineralogy can be accessed by various methods. The main three methods are: microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Each of these techniques has its benefits and drawbacks.

NIR is an easy-to-use technique capable of identification and quantification of most minerals. The quantitative mineralogical analyses using NIR requires a statistical model using a set of reference samples (~100 or above) with the mineralogy quantified by a primary technique, like XRD. Therefore, NIR quantification lacks the accuracy and flexibility of XRD. However, a major benefit of NIR is design simplicity. This makes NIR very portable and easy to implement for online analyses. Therefore, NIR is very convenient for exploration work in the field as well as for monitoring mineralogy on a conveyor belt.

XRD and microscopy do provide more accurate quantitative results. However, historically, both, XRD and microscopy, were regarded as lab-based, infrastructure-demanding techniques requiring an expert operator. To a large extent this is still valid for microscopy technique today. Microscopy does have its place, but typically is used in a lab environment as an R&D tool.

Modern XRD equipment can be very compact, rigid in design, and suitable for use by inexperienced personal directly at the mine side (eg container lab) or next to the process line, with or without automated sample feed, with the direct fast process feedback (5-10 min) to an operator and/or LIMS. These make XRD the most suitable sensor for the fast and accurate mineralogy check at every step of mine operation, starting from exploration and mine development to the process control during ore beneficiation and quality check of a final product.

Written by: Dr. Olga Narygina – Malvern Panalytical (www.malvernpanalytical.com)

Polymers in Additive Manufacturing: The Future of Part Production

Additive manufacturing is a technology that makes parts from virtual three-dimensional computer models by building the component layer-by-layer until the part is complete. Due to efficiency advantages over subtractive manufacturing amongst other methods, this technique has begun to revolutionize the production of unique, individualized components, from printable custom vitamins to a boat, there are a lot of applications! There are a number of build technologies under development each with their benefits. In addition to the progress of the technology, the polymer filaments used to create the parts have been at the forefront of the research. One of the primary characterization techniques for the analysis of polymer filaments used in additive manufacturing is gel permeation chromatography (GPC). We will discuss the impacts of polymer parameters on their application in additive manufacturing and how to characterize them using advanced multi-detection GPC. In the webinar, collaborative GPC projects in the field of 3D bio-printing, and the use of Nylon 12 polymer filaments will be presented.

Summary

Date:
April 30 2020 – April 30 2020
Time:
18:30 – 19:30 Arabian Standard Time
Event type:
Webinar – Live
Language:
English

Speakers

Stefan Cairns – Product Technical Specialist – Separations

More information

– Who should attend?
Those with an interest in additive manufacturing, 3D printing and polymer research, whether they may be involved with manufacturing, engineering, materials science, chemistry, or medical research.
– What will you learn?
Attendees will learn about the novel technique of 3D printing and the characterization of polymers used within these applications.

Posted By Malvern Panalytical (www.malvernpanalytical.com)

Focus on Vaccine Development 2: How Stable is Stable? Combining biophysical techniques and advanced kinetics to support formulation development

The webinar will be focused on the use of DSC (highlighted value of extended characterization for protein engineering and stability predictions) and NTA (stated as comparable to ELISA) in the characterization and development of a stable virus vaccine .

Summary

Date:
April 21 2020 – April 21 2020
Time:
18:30 – 19:30 Arabian Standard Time
Event type:
Webinar – Live
Language:
English
Industry:
Pharmaceuticals

Speakers

Natalia Markova & Didier Clenet – Guest Speaker from Sanofi Pasteur

More information

Who should attend?

– Scientists and project leaders in academia and industry working with characterization of proteins and development of protein-based vaccines and therapeutics.

What will you learn?

– Basic principles of DSC and its application to vaccine development.

– Ways to apply DSC to characterization of recombinant multi-domain proteins

– Benefits of DSC as compared to other thermal shift techniques.

Posted By Malvern Panalytical (www.malvernpanalytical.com)

New Steel CRMs for April 2020 – Grades F9, 15-5PH, 1020 and 1050

Our Partner ARMI | MBH has been busy looking through data and certifying new material. We are proud to announce the release of 4 new Steel CRMs this month.  (click on the links in the names of each part to see the certificates of analysis.)

The new steel standards include an F9 (9%Cr, 1Mo), a 15-5PH steel, and two carbon steels – a 1020 and a 1050.

The new F9 steel; IARM-Fe9-18 falls in the typical range for the grade, with 8.72% Cr and 0.94% Mo, and has certified values for 19 other elements, As, C, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, N, Nb, Ni, O, P, S, Sb, Si, Sn, Ti, V and W. This type of steel has many uses, and is good for mild corrosive or erosive applications, and can withstand a wide range of temperatures.

The 15-5PH steel; IARM-Fe155PH-18 contains 15.13% Cr; 4.79%  Ni and 3.35% Cu, and has certified values for an additional 17 elements, including Al, As, B, C, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, N, Nb, O, P, S, Si, Sn, V and W.  15-5PH steels are martensitic precipitation hardening type steels, designed to be corrosion resistant and heat treatable for hardness.

There are two new Carbon steels; IARM-Fe1020-18, a 1020 low Carbon steel containing 0.226% C; and IARM-Fe1050-18, a 1050 medium Carbon steel containing 0.499%C. Carbon steels are among the most versatile steels, and the amount of Carbon in the steel correlates directly to its mechanical properties. Carbon steels are typically used for building, and railroads. Both of our new, commonly used, carbon steel grades are certified for several additional elements, including Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, N, Nb, Ni, O, P, S, Sb, Si, Sn, V, and Zn. The 1020 low carbon steel is a new grade for us, and we are excited about being able to offer this in conjunction with all of our other steel products.

 

Tracks_Cropped_iStock-1183081031

For more information on these or any of our other alloys, you can contact us

Written By: Kim Halkiotis – ARMI MBH (www.armi.com)

Impact of the sample surface on the data quality in XRF analysis.

Metal samples are often considered to be one of the easiest sample types to measure using XRF, but an incorrectly prepared surface can have a huge impact on the quality of the measured data. The quality of the sample preparation will impact every aspect of the analysis, from the calibration through to analysis of unknown materials.

To obtain accurate, precise data with metal samples, you must have a clean, flat surface. Unfortunately, flat is a relative term, and the answer is not as straight forward as one might expect. The quick answer is that the surface should be as smooth as possible.

The analysis depth for XRF is dependent on the analyte. Low atomic number elements with long x-ray wavelengths (i.e. light elements), will be easily absorbed by other elements in the matrix, meaning the analysis depth for these light elements is much closer to the surface of the sample than heavier elements with shorter wavelength x-rays. In terms of surface finish, this means that the rougher your surface is, the more it will affect the results for the light elements. Conversely, the smoother your surface finish is, the better the relative count rate will be for the lightest elements being analyzed.

Surface finish
Imperfections in the surface can cause a shadow effect, where elements that are excited on the surface by the incoming x-ray beam, are then subsequently absorbed by a higher region on the surface before they can be detected.(See figure below)

Shadow effect

The optimum technique for finishing a given sample will depend on many things, including the type of metal, the hardness and the analytes of interest. Some alloys such as stainless, can easily be re-surfaced with simple alumina grinding paper on a disk grinder such as the HK200, and then finished with diamond polishing if light elements are being evaluated. Others metals such as Co or Ni alloys are harder and will require a more vigorous approach such as a lathe to obtain the optimum finish. Soft alloys such as Cu, Au, Al, or Pb will tend to smear during grinding, and require finishing with a lathe to prevent smearing the softer metal(s) over the harder ones, skewing results for all components. Brittle materials, such as cast iron will be difficult to grind with a disk grinder, and will do best with a pendulum style grinder such as the HK150EX.

HK200HK150exs

One other aspect to consider when preparing your metal samples is contamination. Grinding and polishing media can leave residue on the surface, so considerations must be made for how to deal with this transferred material. Whether its carbon, aluminum, or even lubricating oils. A rinse with alcohol will remove most contamination, or, if you are not looking for the contaminant in your metal, you can ignore any contribution from it. Ultimately, a balance must be found between the time and materials required to obtain the “perfect” finish, and the true requirements of the analysis. Polishing to a mirror finish on every sample is great in theory, but if you are only looking for Fe, Ni and Cr in Stainless, you will not gain any analytical benefit from the extra steps. If on the other hand, you are doing C in steel, the mirror finish will be crucial to obtaining good quality data.

Finally, after the optimum finish has been decided, the standard and sample MUST be finished in the same way. If they are not, all of the careful planning put into determining how to prepare the samples will be useless, as you cannot accurately compare materials that are not finished identically.

For more information on ARMI|MBH sample preparation equipment, click below.

 

Download HK 150 Product Sheet

Download HK 200 Product Sheet

Posted By Malvern Panalytical (www.malvernpanalytical.com)

New Aluminum SUS Samples

If you analyze aluminum materials using Spark OES, you are likely familiar with set up samples (SUS). They can be crucial for your daily operation, and ARMI | MBH now has 3 new Aluminum Set-Up-Samples to offer you.

All optical emission spectrometers are prone to some degree of intensity drift over time, and because these techniques are comparative, this drift needs to be measured and corrected in order to maintain high quality analytical results. The best correction occurs when you can measure both low and high concentrations to correct the slope and intercept of the curves.

An SUS is a sample that is typically run on your spark system daily to correct the slope and/or intercept of the calibration lines, correcting for any change in intensity that occurs in the system from day to day. A good SUS is a homogeneous material that will produce a consistent signal over time, meaning that any observed variation in the signal can be assumed to be due to instrument drift, which is then corrected using an intensity factor. In the analysis of Aluminum, three samples are often used to cover the widest possible range of analysis from very clean samples of high purity Aluminum, to Al based alloys with relatively high concentrations of other alloying elements. Obtaining stable samples to cover this wide analysis range is critical for good long-term precision of all of the elements in the method. Once suitable samples are located, daily analysis equates to a high sample usage, and a can result in a high replacement rate for the material.

ARMI | MBH is proud to introduce three new SUS samples for Aluminum; MBH-RA10-20, MBH-RA18-20 and MBH-RA19-20. The composition of these samples is based on compositions that are commonly used in the Aluminum industry, and we have ensured a dependable supply chain by developing these samples with a large lot sizes and a dependable supply chain for future lots. The MBH-RA10-20 is offered as a 57mm diameter with 38mm height, and MBH-RA18-20 and MBH-RA19-20 are both 65mm diameter and 40mm height. The generous size of these disks provides a large surface for multiple sparks, and sufficient height to allow for numerous rounds of refinishing.  These products are available individually or as a set of three.

65x40 diagram-1         57x38 diagram

All three of these materials have gone through rigorous homogeneity testing, using a multiple analytical techniques to ensure that the sample you receive will produce consistent results, and will not adversely affect the quality of your calibration curve. The high purity metal of the MBH-RA10-20 allows for a zero point correction for all of the tramp elements in the method, while the MBH-RA18 and MBH-RA19 allow for optimum correction for the slopes of these elements, ensuring good quality data from the low through the high end of the calibrated range.

Want to know more, visit our SUS page for a listing of all of our available Set Up Samples

Visit SUS Page

Written by: Kim Halkiotis – ARMI MBH (www.armi.com)